Organic Nomenclature in Chinese (有机命名法, yǒujī mìngmíngfǎ)

This page will try to explain Organic Nomenclature in Simplified Chinese and how to translate the names of organic compounds into English. It is a work in progress so there may be some mistakes.

The Chinese Chemical Society has drawn up a set of rules for naming organic molecules based on the naming rules of IUPAC. There is an almost one-to-one match between the naming systems. If you are interested in further reading, here are some useful resources for chemistry and the names of compounds.

  • IUPAC guidelines for organic nomenclature. If this link does not work, try searching Google CN for 有机化合物中文命名原则 (Chinese Naming Principles for Organic Compounds, yǒujī huàhéwù zhòng wén mìngmíng yuánzé).
  • The IECSC (Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances in China, 中国现有化学物质名录, compressed file size 39.6Mb) from the Ministry of Environmental Protection. A bilinigual list of about 45,000 chemicals.
Naming of Organic Compounds

A carbon chain length of 1 to 10 is denoted by the following characters no matter what compounds they are in. These are the celestial or heavenly stems used since the Shang dynasty around 3000 years ago. The Shang believed there were 10 suns and 10 days in a week and used the characters below to name them. They are shown here with their corresponding hydrocarbon stems.

甲 (jiǎ) - meth, C1
乙 (yǐ) - eth, C2
丙 (bǐng) - prop, C3
丁 (dīng) - but, C4
戊 (wù) pent, C5
己 (jǐ) hex, C6
庚 (gēng) - hept, C7
辛 (xīn) - oct, C8
壬 (rén) - non, C9
癸 (guǐ) - dec, C10

Carbon chain lengths of 11 or more use conventional counting.

十一 (shíyī) - undec, C11
十二 (shí'èr) - dodec, C12
十三 (shísān) - trideca, C13 etc

We can add the suffixes 烷 (wán) meaning 'alkane', 烯 (xī) meaning 'alkene' and 炔 (guì) meaning 'alkyne' to these stems to get a series of simple saturated hydrocarbons (饱和烃, bǎohétīng) and unsaturated hydrocarbons (不饱和烃, bùbǎohétīng). For example;

If the suffix 烷 (wán) meaning 'alkane' is added to these stems we get;

甲烷 (jiǎwán) - methane (and replacing 烷 with 基 (jī, which means group) gives 甲基 (jiǎjī) - methyl group
乙烷 (yǐwán) - ethane and 乙基 (yǐjī) - ethyl group
丙烷 (bǐngwán) - propane and 丙基 (bǐngjī) - propyl group
丁烷 (dīngwán) - butane and 丁基 (dīng​jī) - butyl group
戊烷 (wùwán) - pentane and 戊基 (wùjī) - pentyl group
己烷 (jǐwán) - hexane and 己基 (jǐjī) - hexyl group
庚烷 (gēngwán) - heptane and 庚基 (gēngjī) - heptyl group
辛烷 (xīnwán) - octane and 辛基 (xīnjī) - octyl group
壬烷 (rénwán) - nonane and 壬基 (rénjī) - nonyl group
癸烷 (guǐwán) - decane and 癸基 (guǐjī) - decyl group
十一烷 (shíyīwán) - undecane and 十一烷基 (shíyīwánjī) - undecyl group
十二烷 (shíèrwán) - dodecane and 十二烷基 (shíèrwánjī) - dodecyl group, etc

Likewise, is we add the suffix 烯 (xī) meaning 'alkene' to the stem we get;

甲烯 (jiǎxī) - methylene
乙烯 (yǐ​xī) - ethene (ethylene) and 乙烯基 (yǐxījī) - ethenyl (vinyl) group
丙烯 (bǐng​xī) - propene (propylene) and 丙烯基 (bǐngxījī) - propenyl (allyl) group
丁烯 (dīng​xī) - butene (butylene) and 丁烯基 (dīngxījī) - butenyl group
戊烯 (wùxī) - pentene (pentylene) and 戊烯基 (wùxījī) - pentenyl
己烯 (jǐxī) - hexene (hexylene) and 己烯基 (Jǐxījī) - hexenyl group
庚烯 (gēngxī) - heptene (heptylene) and 庚烯基 (gēngxījī) - heptenyl group
辛烯 (xīnxī) - octene (octylene) and 辛烯基 (xīnxījī) - octenyl group
壬烯 (rénxī) - nonene (nonylene) and 壬烯基 (rénxījī) - nonenyl group
癸烯 (guǐxī) - decene (decylene) and 癸烯基 (guǐxījī) - decenyl group
十一烯 (shíyīxī) - undecene (undecylene) and 十一烯基 (shíyīxījī) - undecenyl group
十二烯 (shí'èrxī) - dodecene (dodecylene) and 十二烯基 (shí'èrxījī) - dodecenyl group

And, if we add the suffix 炔 (guì) meaning 'alkyne' we get;

乙炔 (yiguì) - ethyne (acetylene) and 乙炔基 (yǐquējī) - ethynyl group
丙炔 (bǐngguì) - propyne and 丙炔基 (bǐngguìjī) - propynyl group
丁炔 (dīngguì) - butyne, etc

If we want to denote a simple series of monohydric alcohols (一元醇, yīyuánchún), we need to add the suffix 醇 (chún) meaning 'alcohol' to the stem. For example,

甲醇 (jiǎchún) - methanol
乙醇 (yǐchún) - ethanol
丙醇 (bǐngchún) - propanol
丁醇 (dīngchún) - butanol
戊醇 (wùchún) pentanol
己醇 (jǐchún) hexanol
庚醇 (gēngchún) - heptanol
辛醇 (xīnchún) - octanol
壬醇 (rénchún) - nonanol
癸醇 (guǐchún) - decanol
十一醇 (shíyīchún) - undecanol
十二醇 (shí'èrchún) - dodecanol, etc

If we now add 氧 (yǎng) meaning oxygen to alkyl (烷基) but before 基 we get 烷氧基 (wányǎngjī) alkoxy. So;

甲氧基 (jiǎ​yǎng​jī) - methoxy (methyloxy)
乙氧烷 (yǐ​yǎng​jī) - ethoxy (ethyloxy)
丙氧基 (bǐngyǎngjī) - propoxy (propyloxy)
丁氧基 (dīngyǎngjī) - butoxy (butyloxy)
戊氧基 (wùyǎngjī) - pentoxy (pentyloxy)
己氧基 (jǐyǎngjī) - hexoxy (hexyloxy)
庚氧基 (gēngyǎngjī) - hexoxy (hepyltoxy)
辛氧基 (xīnyǎngjī) - octoxy (octyloxy)
壬氧基 (rényǎngjī) - nonoxy (nonyloxy)
癸氧基 (guǐyǎngjī) - decoxy (decyloxy)

Other atoms and groups include;

hydrogen (qīng) H
carbon (tàn) C
nitrogen (dàn) N
sulfur (liú) S
phosphorus (lín) P
halogen 卤素 (lǔsù)  
fluorine (fú) F
chlorine (lǜ) Cl
bromine (xiù) Br
iodine (diǎn) I
amino 氨基 (ānjī) -NH2
hydroxyl 羟基(qiǎngjī) -OH
cyano 氰基 (qíngjī) CN
carboxyl 羧基 (suōjī) -COOH
carbonyl 羰基 (tāng) C=O
sulfonyl 磺酰基 (huángxiānjī) S(=O)2
aldehyde 醛基 (quánjī) -CHO
thiol 硫醇 (liú chún) -SH
thieno 噻吩并 (sāifēn bìng)  
-en- -烯- (xī)  
-ol -醇 (chún)  

Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary are denoted by;

primary - 伯 (bó)
secondary, sec - 仲 (zhòng)
tertiary, tert - 叔 (shū)
quaternary - 季 (jì)

For example;

a primary amine is primary (伯, bó) + amine (胺, àn) - (伯胺, bóàn)
a tertiary alcohol is tertiary (叔, shū) + alcohol (醇, chún) - 叔醇 (shūchún)
secbutyl is 仲 (sec, zhòng) + 丁基 (butyl, dīngjī) - 仲丁基 (zhòng dīngjī)
三級戊基 (sānjí wùjī) is tert-pentyl

Isomer prefixes normal-, iso-, and neo- are translated as;

normal - 正 (zhèng, meaning 'proper')
iso - 异 (yì, meaning 'different')
neo - 新 (xīn, meaning 'new')

For example;

neopentane is 新 (neo, xīn) + 戊烷 (pentane, wùwán) - 新戊烷 (xīn wùwán)
isopropanol is 异 (iso, yì) + 丙 (prop-, bǐng) + 醇 (alcohol (-ol), chún) - 异丙醇 (yì bǐngchún)
n-butyl is 正丁基 (zhèng dīngjī)

Some other prefixes.

allo- 別 (bié), eg, 別桂皮酸 (bié guìpí suān) - allocinnamic acid
apo- 變 (biàn), eg, 變樟腦 (biàn zhāngnǎo) - apocamphor
epi- 表 (biǎo), eg, 表雄酮 (biǎo xióng tóng) - epiandrosterone
homo- 升 (shēng), eg, D-升-5α-雄甾烷 (D-shēng-5α-xióngzāiwán) - D-homo-5α-androstane
hypo- 次 (cì), eg, 次磷酸 (cìlínsuān) - hypophosphorus acid
nor- 降 (jiàng), eg, 雄甾烷 (xióng zāi wán) androstane - 降雄甾烷 (jiàng xióng zāi wán) norandrostane
nor- 失
pro- 原
pseudo- 准、假
spiro- 螺
anhydro- 脱水
homo- 增
seco - 断
abeo- 迁
retro- 逆
tris- 叁
de- 去
poly- 聚 (jù), eg, 聚酯 (jùzhǐ) - polyester. 多糖 (duōtáng) polysaccharide. 共聚物 (gòngjù wù) copolymer.

Some suffixes;

-唑 (zuò) -azole, eg, 四唑 (sì zuò) tetrazole and 吲唑 (yǐn zuò) indazole,
糖 (táng) -ose (denoting a saccharide), eg, 核糖 (hétáng) - ribose (literally 'nucleus sugar'),
葡萄糖 (pútáotáng) - glucose (literally 'grape sugar')
元 (yuán) - used as an indicator of atoms in a ring. For example, 8-元环 (8-yuán huán) is an 8-membered ring, 5-至12-元单环 (5-zhì 12-yuán dān huán) 5-12 membered monocycle.
个 (gè) is a general counter and is used to indicate, for example, the number of alkyl groups. For example, 1至3个C1-6烷基 (1 zhì 3 gè C1-6 wán jī) 1-3 C1-6 alkyl groups.
并 (bìng) is used in fusion naming. For example, benzene (苯, běn) is suffixed with 并 to form benzo (苯并) and so the fusion of a benzene ring and a furan ring gives benzofuran (苯并呋喃, běn bìng fūnán). Similarly, 二苯并蒽 (ér běn bìng ēn) dibenzoanthracene.

We can create simple organic amines by adding the suffix 胺 (àn). For example;

甲胺 (jiǎàn) - methylamine
乙胺 (yǐàn) - ethylamine
丁胺 (dīngàn) - butylamine
乙二胺 (yǐèràn) - ethylenediamine

Counters include;

一 (yī'), 二 (èr), 三 (sān), 四 (sì), 五 (wǔ), 六 (liù). For example;

trichloro 三氯 (sānlǜ)
difluoro 二氟 (èrfú)
dihydro 二氢 (èrqīng)
tetrachloro 四氯 (sìlǜ)

Also 单 (dān), mono. For example, monohydrochloride 单盐酸盐 (dān yán suān yán).
Biphenyl is 聯苯 (liánběn) where 聯 means to unite or to join together.

The suffix 類 (lèi) is very often used to pluralize a class of compound, eg 醣 (táng) is carbohydrate and 醣類 (tánglèi) means carbohydrates.

Then there are aliphatic (脂肪族, xhīfángzú) and aromatic (芳香, fāngxiāng) groups.

Aliphatic compounds which are also cyclic are referred to as alicyclic 脂环族 (zhī huán zú).

The prefix 环 (huán) indicates 'cyclo'. As as suffix it indicates 'cycle'. Cycloalkane is 环烷烃 (huán wántīng). For example;

cyclobutane is 环丁烷 (huán dīngwán) and cyclobutyl is 环丁基 (huán dīngjī)
cyclopropane is 环丙烷 (huán bǐngwán) and cyclopropyl is 环丙基 (huán bǐngjī)
cyclohexane is 环己烷 (huán jǐwán) and cyclohexyl is 环己基 (huán jǐjī)
cycloheptane is 环庚烷 (huán gēngwán) and cycloheptyl is 环庚基 (huán gēngjī)
cyclooctane is 环辛烷 (huán xīnwán) and cyclooctyl is 环辛基 (huán xīnjī)
cyclononane is 环壬烷 (huán rénwán) and cyclononyl is 环壬基 (huán rénjī)
cyclodecane is 环癸烷 (huán guǐ án) and cyclodecyl is 环癸基 (huán guǐjī)

Cycloalkenes are 环烯烃 (huán xītīng). For example;

cyclopropene is 环丙烯 (huán bǐngxī) and cyclopropenyl is 环丙烯基 (huán bǐngxījī) etc.

Carbocycle is carbon (碳) + cycle (环) - 碳环 (tànhuán). Other carbocyclic rings include;

phenol - 苯酚 (běnfēn), phenyl group - 苯基 (běnjī) (phenoxy is 苯氧基 (běnyǎngjī)
benzene - 苯 (běn), benzyl group - 苯甲基 (běnjiǎjī) (benzyloxy is 苯甲氧基 (běnjiǎyǎngjī)

The prefix 杂 (zá) indicates hetero (it actually means 'mixed'). So, heteroalkly is 杂烷基 (záwánjī). Heterocycle is 杂 + 环 (záhuán).
To make heterocyclyl from heterocycle it is necessary to add 基 - 杂环基 (záhuánjī).
Logically then, heterocyclyl (杂环基) + alkyl (烷基) gives us 杂环基烷基 (záhuánjīwánjī) - heterocyclyalkyl.

In many cases, if the character -基- is seen in a compound name it is translated as -yl-, for example, pent-1-yl is 戊-1-基 (wù-1-jī). Likewise, 叉基 (chājī) indicates -diyl (叉 (chā) actually means 'cross' or 'fork' or 'X-sign'). The hyphen is read as 位 (wèi meaning 'position').

Spiro is denoted by 螺 (luó) (which literally means snail or spiral shell). For example, 螺[4.5]癸烷 (spiro[4.5]decane). Dispiro is 二螺 (èr luó) and trispiro is 三螺 (sān luó).

Heterocycles include;

aziridine - 氮丙啶 (dànbǐngdìng)
furan - 呋喃 (fūnán)
imidazole - 咪唑 (mīzuò)
indole - 吲哚 (yǐnduǒ)
isoquinoline - 异喹啉 (yì kuí lín)
pyridine - 吡啶 (bǐdìng)
pyrazine - 吡嗪 (bǐqín)
pyrazole - 吡唑 (bǐzuò)
pyrrole - 吡咯 (bǐluò)
pyridazine - 哒嗪 (dáqín)
piperidine - 哌啶 (pàidìng)
piperazine - 哌嗪 (pàiqín)
quinoline - 喹啉 (kuí lín)
oxazine - 噁嗪 (ěqín)
purine - 嘌呤 (piàolíng)
thiophene (thiofuran) - 噻吩 (sāifēn)
tetrahydrofuran - 四氢呋喃 (sìqīngfūnán)
imidazoline - 咪唑啉 (mīzuò lín)
morpholine - 吗啉 (malín)
naphthalene - 萘 (nài)

Stereochemistry (立体化学, lìtǐ huàxué) terms include;

cis- 顺 (shùn, 'along')
trans- 反 (fǎn, 'against')
ortho- 邻 (lín, 'neighboring')
meta- 间 (jiàn, 'between')
para- 对 (duì, 'opposing')
peri - 迫 (pò, 'to go towards')
nor - 降 (jiàng, 'lowered')
homo - 高 (gāo, 'high')
isomer - 异构体 (yìgòutǐ)
stereoisomer - 立体异构体 (lìtǐyìgòutǐ)
enantiomer - 对映体 (duìyìngtǐ)
tautomer - 互变异构体 (hùbiànyìgòutǐ)

For example;
p-toluene - 对甲苯 (duìjiǎběn) [If you did not know what toulene was you could work it out from the Chinese characters, 甲 (methyl) + 苯 (benzene)].

Acids, bases, and salts include;

acid - 酸 (suān). For example, carboxylic acids (羧酸, suōsuān) use a slightly different naming system and form salts with bases.

蚁酸 (yǐsuān) - formic acid and a formate salt is 蚁酸盐 (yǐsuān yán)
(formic acid is also written 甲酸 (jiǎsuān))
醋酸 (cùsuān) - acetic acid and an acetate salt is 醋酸盐 (cùsuān yán)
丙酸 (bǐngsuān) - propionic acid and a propionate salt is 丙酸盐 (bǐngsuān yán)
酪酸 (làosuān) - butyric acid and a butyrate salt is 酪酸盐 (làosuān yán)
戊酸 (wùsuān) pentanoic acid (valeric acid) and a pentanoate (valerate) salt is 戊酸盐 (wùsuān yán)
己酸 (jǐsuān) hexanoic acid and a hexanoate salt is 己酸盐 (jǐsuān yán)
庚酸 (gēngsuān) - heptanoic acid (enanthic acid) and a heptanoate (enanthate) salt is (gēngsuān yán)
辛酸 (xīnsuān) - octanoic acid and an octanoate salt is 辛酸盐 (xīnsuān yán)
壬酸 (rénsuān) - nonanoic acid and a nonanoate salt is 壬酸盐 (rénsuān yán)
癸酸 (guǐsuān) - decanoic acid and a decanoate salt is 癸酸盐 (guǐsuān yán)
十一酸 (shíyīsuān) - undecylic acid
十二酸 (shí'èrsuān) - dodecylic acid

benzoic acid - 苯甲酸 (běnjiǎ suān) - a benzoate is 苯甲酸盐 (běnjiǎ suān yán)
furoic acid - 糠酸 (kāng suān)
acrylic acid - 丙烯酸 (bǐngxīsuān)
malonic acid - 丙二酸 (bǐngèr suān)
maleic acid - 顺丁烯二酸 (shùndīngxīèr suān)
palmitic acid - 棕榈酸 or 十六酸 - (zōnglǘ suān or (hexadecanoic acid) shíliù suān)
lauric acid - 月桂酸 or 十二酸 (yuèguì suān or (dodecanoic acid) shí'èr suān) - a laurate salt is 月桂酸盐 (yuèguì suān yán)
citric acid - 柠檬酸 (níngméng suān) - a citrate salt is 柠檬酸盐 (níngméng suān yán)
pyruvic acid - 丙酮酸 (bǐngtóng suān) - a pyruvate salt is 丙酮酸盐 (bǐngtóng suān yán)

salt - 盐 (yán)
alkali - 碱 (jiǎn)
hydrochloride - 盐酸盐 (yán suān yán), eg sodium hydrochloride is 盐酸钠 (yánsuān nà)
hydroxide - 氢氧化物 (qīng yǎnghuà wù), eg sodium hydroxide is 氢氧化钠 (qīng yǎnghuà nà)
anhydride - 酐 (gān), eg maleic anhydride is 马来酸酐 (mǎ lái suāngān)

The prefix 亚 (yà) means 'inferior' and is used to change, for example, a sulfate to a sulfite - sodium sulfate (硫酸钠, liú​suān​nà) and sodium sulfite (亚硫酸钠, yàliúsuānnà). Likewise, sodium nitrate (硝酸钠, xiāo​suān​nà) becomes sodium nitrite (亚硝酸钠, yà​xiāo​suān​nà) when prefixed with 亚.
Amine (胺, àn) to imine (亚胺, yà àn).
-亚基 is usually taken to mean -ylidene. For example, 乙亚基 (yǐ yà jī) is the ethylidene group.
Nitro is (硝基, xiāo jī) and nitroso is (亚硝基, yǎ xiāo jī).
The prefix 過 before an acid usually indicates 'per'. For example 過氯酸 (guò lǜsuān) is perchloric acid.

Others;

ester - 酯 (zhǐ), eg methyl ester - 甲酯 (jiǎzhǐ), ethyl ester - 乙酯 (yǐzhǐ)
ether - 醚 (mí), ethyl ether - 乙醚 (yǐmí)
ketone - 酮 (tóng), eg pyrazol-3-one 吡唑-3-酮 (bǐzuò-3-tóng), dione (diketone) 二酮 (èrtóng)

Other terms;

1,4-苯醌RS 1,4-benzoquinone RS
聚乙烯吡咯烷酮 1-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one
异丙醇 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol)
加速稳定性 accelerated stability
缩醛 acetal
乙酸 acetate
醋酸缓冲液 acetate buffer
乙酸 acetic acid
乙酐 acetic anhydride
乙腈 acetonitrile
苯乙酮 acetophenone
乙醯氯 acetyl chloride
乙酰胆碱 acetylcholine
酰卤化合物 acid halide
反酸 acid regurgitation
胃酸分泌 acid secretion
酸溶性物质 acid soluble substances
有效成分 active substance
活性 activity
急性治疗 acute therapy
急性毒性 acute toxicity
链烃 acyclic hydrocarbon
金刚烷 adamantine
加入催化剂 adding a catalyst
腺嘌呤 adenine
吸附力 adsorptive power
好氧微生物总数检查法 aerobic microbial count
玛瑙乳体 agate mortar
空气-乙炔 air acetylene
密封的 airtight
密封容器 airtight container
丙胺酸 alanine
酒精 alcohol
酒溶性物质 alcohol soluble substances
运算法则 algorithm
碱金属类氢氧化物 alkali hydroxide
碱性 alkaline
碱溶性有色物 alkali-soluble coloured substances
碱化剂 alkalizer
生物碱 alkaloid
alkane
alkene
alkyne
烯丙基 allyl
氯化铝 aluminium chloride
氧化铝 aluminum oxide
氨基酸 amino acid
胺氧化物 amino oxides
氨基苯酸 aminobenzoic acid
氢氧化铵溶液 ammonia solution
醋酸铵 ammonium acetate
氯化铵 ammonium chloride
氯化铵 ammonium chloride
氢氧化铵 ammonium hydroxide
氨基硫酸铁 ammonium iron (iii) sulfate
吡咯烷二硫代氨基甲酸铵 ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate
硫氰酸铵 ammonium thiocyanide
类似物 analog
分析天平 analytical balance
分析方法 analytical procedures
脱水 anhydro
无水的 anhydrous
无水乙醇;无水酒精 anhydrous ethanol
无水碳酸钠 anhydrous sodium carbonate
负离子 anion
anthracene
蒽醌 anthraquinone
anti-
抗生素 antibiotic
抑制分泌 antisecretory
仪器要求 apparatus requirements
分析纯 AR grade
阿拉伯糖 arabinose
面积归一法 area normalization
精胺酸 arginine
aromatic hydrocarbon
arsenic
天冬醯胺酸 asparagine
天冬胺酸 aspartic acid
化验 assay
阿扎那韦硫酸盐 atazanavir sulphate
原子 atom
原子吸收光谱仪 atomic absorption spectrophotometer
奥罗宾多 aurobindo
叠氮化合物 azide
双腙 azine
偶氮 azo
偶氮化合物 azo compound
偶氮氧 azoxy
偶氮氧化合物 azoxy compound
azulene
氯化钡 barium chloride
批量分析 batch analyses
料方 batch formula
烧杯 beaker
亚苄基 benzal
苯甲醛 benzaldehyde
苯并咪唑 benzimidazole
苯并呋喃 benzofuran
苯亚甲基 benzylidene
2,6-二叔丁基-4-甲基苯酚 BHT
重碳酸盐 bicarbonate
胆汁耐受革兰氏阴性菌 bile tolerant gram-negative bacteria
生物分析 bio-analytical
生物利用度 bio-availability
生物等效性 bio-equivalence
生物材料 bio-materials
生物制药 biopharmaceutic
联苯 biphenyl
黑氧化铁 black iron oxide
空白溶液 blank solution
空白液 blanks
透明包装 blister pack
血压 blood pressure
长颈烧瓶 boiling flask with a narrow neck
成键数 bonding number
硼氢化物 borohydride
硼硅玻璃 borosilicate glass
牛海绵状脑病(疯牛病) bovine spongiform encephalopathy
支链 branched chain
架桥 bridged
桥烃 bridged hydrocarbon
溴甲酚绿-甲基红指示剂 bromocresol green/methyl red indicator
溴麝香草酚蓝 bromothymol blue
溴麝香草酚蓝指示剂 bromothymol blue indicator solution
球吸管 bulb pipette
本生灯 bunsen burner
滴定管 burette
丁[2]烯桥 but[2]eno
丁醇 butanol
丁酮 butanone
硬脂酸钙 calcium stearate
校正或校准 calibrate/calibration
电导率仪 calibrated instrumentation
毛细管注射器 capillary injection
carbon
二氧化碳 carbon dioxide
无二氧化碳的水 carbon dioxide-free water
羧基 carboxyl group
CAS登记号 CAS Reg. No.
催化裂化 catalytic cracking
催化重整 catalytic reforming
正离子 cation
电极常数 cell constant
纤维素 cellulose
特性基团 characteristic group
化学反应机理 chemical reaction schemes
氯酸 chloric acid
氯化物 chloride
氯离子 chloride ion
氯仿 chloroform
三氯甲烷 chloroform
氯甲基 chloromethyl
氯萘 chloronaphthalene
亚氯酸 chlorous acid
色谱 chromatogram
色谱法 chromatographic
慢性毒性 chronic toxicity
长期治疗 chronic treatment
cis-
类顺 cisoid
柠檬酸盐 citrate
柠檬酸 citric acid
封塞 closure
最大浓度 Cmax
包衣锅 coating pan
六水合氯化钴/二氯化钴/氯化亚钴 cobalt chloride hexahydrate
辅助催化剂 co-catalyst
胶状的 colloidal
染色 coloration
管柱 column
工业规模 commercial scale
补偿液/校正液 compensation liquid
错合物 complex
浓盐酸 concentrated hydrochloric acid
浓度 concentration
电导率电极常数 conductivity cell constant
电导率电极探头 conductivity cell probe
可靠区间 confidence interval
锥形瓶 conical flask
用量 consumed
对照溶液 control solutions
对照研究 controlled study
硫酸铜 copper sulphate
五水硫酸铜 copper sulphate pentahydrate
核心药片 core tablet
共价键 covalent bond
裂化 cracking
交联聚维酮 crospovidone
结晶性粉末 crystalline powder
环肽 cyclic peptide
环己烷 cyclohexane
半胱胺酸 cysteine
细胞色素 cytochrome
胞嘧啶 cytosine
缓释片 delayed release tablets
脱氧 deoxy
去氧糖 deoxy sugar
去氧核糖核酸 deoxyribonucleic acid
衍生物 derivative
干燥器 desiccator
dextro-
乙氮烯 diazene
重氮 diazo
重氮化合物 diazo compound
重氮正离子化合物 diazonium compound
二氯甲烷 dichloromethane
过氧化二乙基 diethyl peroxide
稀释液 diluent
稀释 dilute
稀释系数 dilution factor
二甲氧基 dimethoxy
二甲基甲酰胺 dimethyal formamide
酞酸二甲酯 dimethyl phthalate
二苯胺 diphenylamine
五氧化二磷 diphosphorus pentoxide
硫酸钾 dipotassium sulphate
分解质 disintegrant
崩解时间 disintegration time
磷酸氢二钠 disodium hydrogen phosphate
四硼酸钠 disodium tetraborate
溶解 dissolve
二硫化物 disulfide
叉基 -diyl
剂型 dosage form
给药方案 dosage regimens
取决于剂量 dose-dependent
剂量相关性 dose-related
干基,折干计算 dried basis
原药料 drug substance
干法混合 dry mixing
十二指肠溃疡 duodenal ulcer
生效日期 effective date
疗效 efficacies
洗提顺序 elution order
滴定终点 end point
endo-
肠衣锭 enteric coated tablets
环境友好 environmentally friendly
酶水平 enzyme level
环氧 epoxy
糜烂性食管炎 erosive esophagitis
erythro-
大肠杆菌属 escherichia
大肠杆菌 escherichia coli
ester
乙二酸 ethanedioic acid
乙桥 ethano
乙醇 ethanol
乙烯桥 etheno
醚和硫属类似物 ether and chalcogen analogs
乙酸乙酯 ethyl acetate
丙烯酸乙酯 ethyl acrylate
丙烯酸酯类共聚物 ethyl acrylate copolymer
乙基纤维素 ethyl cellulose
氢过氧化乙基 ethyl hydroperoxide
甲基乙基酮 ethyl methyl ketone
乙二醇 ethylene glycol
赋形剂 excipient
排泄物 excretion
exo-
泛代谢者 extensive metabolizer
快速混合制粒机 fast mixer granulator
脂肪酸 fatty acid
氧化铁 ferric oxide
高铁盐,铁盐 ferric salt
制备步骤较少 few reaction steps
滤纸 filter papers
滤液 filtrate
过滤 filtration
总产量 final yield
基本参考标准品 first reference standard
絮凝 flocculation
扰流器 flow spoiler
荧光室 fluorescence chamber
荧光物质 fluorescent substances
甲酰胺 formamide
配方 formula
果糖 fructose
果糖 fructose
官能团 functional group
漏斗 funnels
并合 fused
石英毛细管柱 fused silica capillary column
气相色谱 gas chromatography
胃酸 gastric acid
胃质子泵抑制剂 gastric proton pump inhibitors
胃泌激素 gastrin
胃食管反流病 gastroesophageal reflux disease
抗胃炎 gastro-resistant
通则信息 general information
冰醋酸 glacial acetic acid
腺胃 glandular stomach
玻璃棒 glass rod
玻璃仪器准备 glassware preparation
葡萄糖 glucose
麸胺酸 glutamic acid
麸醯胺酸 glutamine
甘油醛 glyceraldehyde
甘油酯 glycerides
甘油碱溶液 glycerin base solution
甘胺酸 glycine
甘油糖脂 glycoglycerolipid
糖脂 glycolipid
鞘糖脂 glycosphingolipid
药物临床管理规范 good clinical practices
梯度混合器 gradient mixer
梯度洗脱表 gradient programme
刻度吸管 graduated pipette
颗粒 granular
造粒 granulation
石墨炉 graphite furnace:
group
基团 group
鸟嘌呤 guanine
H+/K+ ATP酶系统 H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system
半衰期 half-life
硬度试验机 hardness tester
顶空分析仪 headspace analyzer
顶空瓶 headspace vial
痊愈率 healing rate
心痛 heartburn
半缩醛 hemiacetal
血液透析 hemodialysis
六次甲基四胺 hexamethylene tetramine
己糖 hexose
组胺 histamine
组胺酸 histidine
组胺酸 histidine
同系物 homolog
同系列 homologous series
加热板 hot plate
高效液相色谱 HPLC
酰肼 hydrazide
硫酸肼 hydrazine sulphate
氢叠氮酸 hydrazoic acid
hydrazone
氢化物 hydride
氢负离子 hydride ion
盐酸 hydrochloric acid
加氢裂化 hydrocracking
叠氮化氢 hydrogen azide
氯化氢 hydrogen chloride
氢离子 hydrogen ion
过氧化氢 hydrogen peroxide
硫化氢 hydrogen sulfide
氢硫酸 hydrosulfuric acid
氢氧化物 hydroxide
羟丙基甲基纤维素 hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose
羟胺 hydroxylamine
盐酸羟胺 hydroxylamine hydrochloride
羟丙基纤维素 hydroxypropyl cellulose
羟丙纤维素 hydroxypropylcellulose
吸湿 hygroscopic
肥大 hypertrophy
次氯酸 hypochlorous acid
羟丙甲纤维素 hypromellose
冰浴 iced water
咪唑啶 imidazolidine
亚胺 imine
在氧化剂存在下 in the presence of an oxidizing agent
吲唑 indazole
吲哚 indole
诱导作用 induction
红外吸收 infrared absorption
抑制 inhibition
内部 in-house
内部规范 in-house specification
内部质量标准 in-house specifications
进样器 injector
专利药 innovator product
仪器准确度、精确度 instrument accuracy
仪器电路 instrument circuitry
仪器读数 instrument reading
仪器反应值 instrument response
深度 intense
相互作用 interaction
静脉注射 intravenous injection
静肪注射 intravenously
体内外 in-vitro and in-vivo
碘量瓶 iodine flask
离子 ion
离子色普法 ion chromatography
无梯度 isocratic
等度泵 isocratic pump
异腈 isocyanide
异白胺酸 isoleucine
异丙烯基 isopropenyl
异喹啉 isoquinoline
同位素 isotope
烯酮 ketene
运动学 kinematic
内酰胺 lactam
内酯 lactone
兰索拉唑 lansoprazole
lead
乙酸铅 lead acetate
醋酸铅试纸 lead acetate paper
硝酸铅 lead nitrate
无水硝酸铅 lead nitrate anhydrous
反应设备较少 less reaction apparatus
白胺酸 leucine
levo-
限值/临界值/限度 limit
联烃 linked cyclic hydrocarbon
类脂 lipid
参考文献 literature references
石蕊试纸 litmus paper
长期稳定性 long-term stability
干燥失重 loss on drying
成本较低 low cost
低剪切搅拌器 low shear blender.
冻干粉剂 lyophilized powder
离胺酸 lysine
镁离子 magnesium ion
氧化镁 magnesium oxide
高氯酸镁 magnesium perchlorate
硫酸镁 magnesium sulphate
麦芽糖 maltose
1.硫酸锰 manganese sulphate
甘露醇 mannitol
甘露糖 mannose
(仪器)生产商的指示或说明 manufacturer’s instructions
制造过程 manufacturing process
半数致死剂量 mean lethal dose
量筒 measuring cylinder
刻度吸量管 measuring pipettes
机械摇动器 mechanical shaker
半数有效量 median effective dose
薄膜过滤器 membrane filter
弯液面,凹凸透镜,半月板 meniscus
硫醇 mercaptan
mercury
内消旋 meso-
新成代谢 metabolism
代谢酶 metabolizing enzyme
金属杂质 metallic impurities
甲基丙烯酸 methacrylic acid
甲基丙烯酸共聚物 methacrylic acid copolymer
甲基丙烯酸乙酯丙烯酸酯共聚物 methacrylic acid ethyl acrylate copolymer
甲桥 methano
甲硫胺酸 methionine
甲基酮 methyl isobtyl ketone
十三碳酸甲酯 methyl tridecanoate
亚甲基 methylene
二氯甲烷 methylene chloride
微生物的,由细菌引起的 microbial
微生物污染 microbial contamination
微生物属性 microbiological attributes
微生物 microorganism
微粒体 microsome
Milli-Q级 Milli-Q-grade
矿物油 mineral oil
色谱流动相 mobile phase
摩尔浓度 molarity
分子式 molecular formula
监控溶液 monitor solution
单环烃 monocyclic hydrocarbon
专论 monograph
单体 monomer
链状单糖 monosaccharide
母体化合物 mother compound
小鼠 mouse
马弗炉 muffle furnace
naphthalene
天然产物 natural product
正丁醇 n-butanol
阴性对照 negative control
纳氏气瓶 Nessler's cylinders
中性脂质 neutral lipid
正庚烷 n-heptane
茚三酮 ninhydrin
硝酸盐 nitrate
无硝酸盐水 nitrate-free water
标准硝酸盐溶液 nitrate-standard solution
氮的;含氮的 nitric
硝酸 nitric acid
氮离子 nitride ion
nitrile
硝基 nitro
亚硝基 nitroso
亚硝酸 nitrous acid
术语 nomenclature
非临床 non-clinic
无菌的 non-sterile
未消毒的制药准备工作 non-sterile pharmaceutical preparation
非甾类的 non-steroidal
非温度补偿的 non-temperature-compensated
当量浓度 normality
四氧氮芥 n-oxide
核酸 nucleic acids
核苷 nucleoside
核苷酸 nucleotide
辛烷值 octane number
测微目镜 ocular micrometer
寡聚物 oligomer
寡糖 oligosaccharide
奥美拉唑 omeprazole
在线仪器 on-line instrumentation
在线实验室 on-line laboratory
在线检测 on-line measurement
乳光 opalescence
乳白色的 opalescent
标签公开 open label
旋光度 optical rotation
有机聚合物 organic polymer
金属有机化合物 organometallic compound
烘箱 oven
草酸 oxalic acid
oxime
含氧酸 oxyacid
棕榈酸 palmitic acid
泮托拉唑 pantoprazole
泮托拉唑氯化物 pantoprazole chloro compound
泮托拉唑钠 pantoprazole sodium
泮托拉唑钠倍半水合物 pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate
泮托拉唑硫化物 pantoprazole sulfide
泮托拉唑砜 pantoprazole sulfone
母体氢化物 parent hydride
壁细胞 parietal cells
患者 patient
过氧乙酸 peracetic acid
高氯酸盐[酯] perchlorate
过氯酸 perchloric acid
过氧化物 peroxide
过氧酸 peroxy acids
与....有关 pertinent to
培养皿 petri dish
药物制剂 pharmaceutical preparation
医药品 pharmaceuticals
药物药效学 pharmacodynamic
药代动力学 pharmacokinetics
药典 pharmacopoeial
酚酞 phenolphthalein
酚酞指示剂 phenolphthalein indicator
苯丙胺酸 phenylalanine
pH值监测 pHmetry
磷酸(盐)缓冲液 phosphate buffer
磷脂酸 phosphatidic acid
磷脂酰胆碱 phosphatidylcholine
磷脂酰乙醇胺 phosphatidylethanolamine
磷脂酰肌醇 phosphatidylinositol
磷脂酰丝氨酸 phosphatidylserine
甘油磷脂 phosphoglycerides
磷脂 phospholipids
磷酸 phosphoric acid
酞酸 phthalic acid
哌啶 piperidine
吸(量)管,移液管 pipet
安慰剂 placebo
白金坩埚 platinum crucible
铂或石英坩埚 platinum or silica crucible
聚醯胺 polyamide
聚酸酐 polyanhydride
聚碳酸酯 polycarbonate
聚二甲基硅 polydimethyl siloxane
聚酯 polyester
聚醚 polyether
聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯 polyethylene terephthalate
聚乙二醇 polyethyleneglycol
多态性 polymorphism
多糖 polysaccharide
聚硫 polysulfide
聚脲 polyurea
聚胺甲酸酯 polyurethane
孔径 pore size
溴化钾 potassium bromide
氯化钾 potassium chloride
氰化钾 potassium cyanide
磷酸二氢钾 potassium dihydrogen phosphate
亚铁氰化钾 potassium ferrocyanide
氢氧化钾 potassium hydroxide
碘化钾 potassium iodide
高锰酸钾 potassium permanganate
焦锑酸钾 potassium pyroantimonate
效力 potencies
滴定电位图 potentiograph
粉末加工 powder processing
百万分之 ppm
沉淀物 precipitate
孕甾烷碱类 pregnane alkaloid
预先标记的 prelabeled
标准溶液的制备 preparation of standard solution
储存溶液的制备 preparation of stock solution
伯胺 primary amine
主链 principal chain
主体基团 principal group
流程或试验流程 procedure
过程控制 process controls
黄体酮 progesterone
脯胺酸 proline
丙[1]烯桥 prop[1]eno
炔丙基 propargyl
专利商品名 proprietary name
丙烯 propylene
质子泵抑制剂 proton pump inhibitor
绿浓杆菌 pseudomonas aeruginosa
肺水肿 pulmonary edema
洗脱模式 pump mode
净化水 purified water
哌喃 pyran
吡啶基 pyridinly
嘧啶 pyrimidine
吡咯烷类 pyrolidine
吡咯并 pyrollo
裂解 pyrolysis
吡咯烷类 pyrrolidine
质量综述 quality overall summary
定量元分析 quantitative meta-analysis
喹啉 quinoline
喹啉 quinoline
quinone
自由基 radical
原料 raw material
反应物料 reaction mass
反应器 reactor
试剂 reagent
试剂纯 reagent grade
试剂用水 reagent water
受体 receptor
建议性国际非专利名称 recommended international nonproprietary name
还原酶 reductase
比对溶液 reference solution
参考标准品 reference standard
回流冷凝器 reflux condenser
复发 relapse
有关物质 related substances
肾衰弱/肾功能不全 renal impairment
残留溶剂 residual solvents
电阻 resistor
分离度测试溶液 resolution solution
保存期 retention period
保留时间 retention time
复验周期 retest period
可逆转的 reversible
审核日期 review date
修改 revision
漂洗 rinse
给药途径 route of administration
样品或样本 sample
样品溶液 sample solution
饱和氯化钾溶液 saturated potassium chloride solution
刻度或量程 scale
刻度读数 scale reading
放大生产 scale up process
包衣 seal coating
血清蛋白 serum protein
副作用 side effect
硅石 silica
硅油;硅酮油 silicone oil
载玻片 slide
碳酸钠 sodium carbonate
依地酸铁钠 sodium edentate
氢氧化钠 sodium hydroxide
硝普钠 sodium nitroprusside
高碘酸钠 sodium periodate
硫代硫酸钠 sodium thoisulfate
固体剂型 solid dosage form
可溶性 solubility
可溶解的 soluble
可溶性铅盐 soluble lead salts
溶液 solution
山梨糖醇 sorbitol
节俭地,保守地 sparingly
样品或样本 specimen
分光光度计 spectrophotometer
标准溶液 standard solution
标准产量 standard yield
氯化亚锡 stannous chloride
起始原料 starting materials
固定相 stationary phase
统计显著性 statistical significance
蒸馏 steam destillation
硬脂酸 steric acid
储备液 stock solution
管闩,活塞,活栓,旋塞阀 stopcock
结构式 structural formula
结构助催化剂 structural promoter
包底衣 sub coating
蔗糖 sucrose
合适的容器 suitable container
硫酸盐灰分 sulfated ash
硫化物 sulfide
硫离子 sulfide ion
亚硫酰基 sulfinyl
硫酸 sulfuric acid
氨基磺酸 sulphamic acid
硫酸盐 sulphate
无氮硫酸 sulphuric acid (nitrogen free)
代替品 supersedes
混悬剂 suspension
系统适宜性 system suitability
列表值 table value
丹宁酸,鞣酸 tannic acid
振实密度 tapped density
温度补偿计算法则 temperature compensation algorithm
温度传感器 temperature sensor
测试溶液 test solution
试管 test tube
催化剂包括金属催化剂 the catalyst comprises and metal catalyst
治疗剂量 therapeutic dose
薄层色谱 thin layer chromatography
硫代乙酰胺 thioacetamide
巯基乙酸 thioglycollic acid
硫代硫酸盐 thiosulphate
甲状腺激素 thyroid hormones
二氧化钛,钛白 titanium dioxide
滴定测量 titrimetry
薄层色谱展开室 TLC development chamber
耐受性 tolerance
甲苯 toluene
好氧微生物总数计数 total aerobic microbial count
霉菌与酵母菌联合总数检查 total combined yeast count
酵母菌和霉菌数总数计数 total combined yeast/mold count
总有机碳 total organic carbon
枸橼酸三乙酯 triethyl citrate
紫外灯 ultraviolet light
单位剂量取样器 unit dose sampler
验证方案 validation protocol
值或数值 value
乙烯基,乙烯基塑料 vinyl
乙烯基醋酸脂 vinyl acetate
容量瓶 volumetric flask
滴定液 volumetric solution
表面玻璃 watch glass
水或净化水 water
水浴 water bath
水浴器 water bath
水电导率或水的电导率 water conductivity
水样 water sample
水系统 water system
蛋白质印迹分析 Western blot analysis
其包括以下步骤 which comprises the following steps
白色或白色粉末 white or off white
工作标准品 working standard