Introduction to Teaching Yourself Japanese Medical Translation

Welcome to The Kanji Foundry Learning - Medical

This is a self-study course for people wishing to teach themselves Japanese-to-English medical translation. It is a companion site to The Kanji Foundry Learning's Patent Translation Course.
   This course was written specifically with undergraduate and postgraduate students in mind although it is applicable to anyone wishing to specialize in Japanese to English medical translation. Many British, American, and Australian universities offer Masters degree courses in translation and interpreting for people with language or similar first degrees, but they offer little in the way of specialist technical or medical translation. Even those courses offering technical and medical translation modules generally do not always offer much in the way of in-depth learning. This e-learning course will help students if they choose to specialize in medical translation and want to teach themselves all aspects of medical translation at low cost.
   This course approaches medical texts from a technical translator's point of view and not a grammar, linguistic, or scientific point of view. It has been designed to introduce words, phrases, and constructs you will actually see in medical documents, explain their meaning and help you build your vocabulary.

This self-study course assumes several things:

*  First, the student has a good understanding of written Japanese and Japanese grammar. There are grammar notes to help explain the sentence constructs throughout these lessons and Appendix 5 has some suggestions for books on learning Japanese grammar.
*  Secondly, the student has sufficient understanding of medicine, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology and the technical terms used in these fields. New vocabulary is introduced in each lesson and there are glossaries in Appendix 4 to help and you can always learn along the way.

   Your proficiency in each of these is down to you! The more background knowledge you have, the easier and more beneficial this course will be (and the more profitable your work as a specialist translator will be too).
   In the left navigation pane of each page you will find a link to the Forum, a discussion forum hosted on this website and a place where you can ask any question about patent, medical and chemical translation you like and, unlike some other forums, you WILL get an answer to your question.

Why specialize in medical work? It is an interesting area of translation to work in. Pharmaceutical companies are always developing new drugs and want them approved for marketing around the world. Technical documents relating to the pharmacology and toxicology of drugs are translated into many languages, English being one of the most common. Japanese scientists working in medicine and related fields are prolific authors and produce a large amount of text much of which is translated into English for publication in English language journals. Physicians want their clinical research published in English to reach the widest audience. Japanese drug companies are prolific inventors so there is a high demand for translations of medical patents and related documents.

As a medical translator, what kinds of documents am I likely to translate? There is a broad range of documents you may be asked to translate. They include:

* Case Reports - (症例報告, しょうれいほうこく)
   - peer-reviewed reports written by physicians describing cases of unusual or unexpected side effects of drugs and/or treatment methods

* Research Articles from Academic Journals - (研究論文, けんきゅうろんぶん)
   - scientific and clinical research across a broad range of medical topics including pharmacology, pharmaceutics and clinical medicine

* Investigator's Brochures - (治験薬概要書, ちけんやくがいようしょ)
   - documents (often containing hundreds of pages) summarizing the results of preclinical and clinical studies of drugs/medical devices

* Package Inserts (添付文書, てんぷぶんしょ), Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC, 製品特性概要), Patient Information Leaflet (PIL)
   - descriptions and consumer information/advice included in packages of drugs, contact lenses, and medical devices

* Interview Forms and Regulatory Review Reports - (医薬品インタビューフォーム, いやくひんインタビューフォーム, )
   - forms to elicit feedback from end users and provide regulatory information on drugs

* Pharmacology and Toxicology Reports - (薬理学と中毒学報告, やくりがくとちゅうどくがくほうこく)
   - summaries of the mechanisms of action and toxicity of drugs and other compounds

* Clinical Trial Protocols/Reports and Results (臨床試験プロトコル・結果, りんしょうしけんプロトコル・けっか), Informed Consent Forms (ICFs, インフォームドコンセント) -
   - reports summarizing the results of Phase I, II, III, and IV studies and to obtain informed consent for subject participation in a study

* Annual Reports - (アニュアルレポート)
   - yearly reports published by drug companies highlighting the highs and lows of the business year

* Manuals for Medical Equipment - (医療機器の操作命令, いりょうききのそうさめいれい)
   - descriptions and instructions for the end users of a broad range of medical equipment from aortic clips to MRI scanners

* Good Manufacturing Practice - (医薬品の製造管理及び品質管理に関する基準)
   - guidelines for the production of drugs, medical devices and other best practices

The 20 Lessons in this course describe and present examples of text from all these types of documents from a translator's point of view, along with many of the words, phrases and constructs found in medical, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological texts. There are numerous example sentences in these lessons.
   The course content is set out below. The early lessons may seem straightforward enough but they gradually build in complexity and provide more complex examples so that most aspects of medical Japanese are covered.
   The words, phrases, and constructs in Lessons 1-10 are approached not from a grammar point of view but from the point of view of how they are actually used in medical texts. If you subscribe to The Kanji Foundry Learning's patent translation course, you will see some overlap of course content.
   Lessons 11-20 give specific examples of medical documents and there are appendices on translation of medical material, glossaries of commonly encountered words and phrases and a reference section giving links to literature, web resources, further information and an introduction to useful software for translators.

The lessons in this course are:

Lesson 0Setting up your computer and where to find medical texts on the internet. Set up your PC under Windows 7/8/10, and Mac OsX and getting the PC/Mac setup to get going with translation and finding sources of medical information on the web – skip this Lesson if you're already setup your PC and have bookmarked the sources you prefer!
Lessons 1-4 introduce around 40 constructs, words and phrases commonly seen in medical texts and will present examples for each. Lessons 5 and 10 are summary lessons.

Lesson M1
   M1-1 ある, aru
   M1-2 もつ, motsu
   M1-3 含む, fukumu
      Box M1-3 Usage notes for と, や, かつ, 及び, 並びに, 又は, あるいは, もしくは and それとも
   M1-4 として, toshite
   M1-5 となっている, to natte iru
   M1-6 多い, ōi
   M1-7 使用する, shiyō suru
   M1-8 得る, eru
   M1-9 てくる, te kuru
      Box M1-9 Usage notes for ...返す (かえす)
      Box M1-9Ex - Usage notes for 化 (か)
   M1-10 占める, shimeru

Lesson M2
   M2-1 改善する, kaizen suru
   M2-2 ようになる, yō ni naru
   M2-3 否定する, hitei suru
   M2-4 考案する, kōan suru
   M2-5 発表する, happyō suru
      Box M2-5a Usage notes for that vs which
      Box M2-5b Usage notes for the suffix -ておく
   M2-6 制御する, seigyo suru
      Box M2-6 Usage notes for される and させる
   M2-7 はず, hazu
   M2-8 見られる, mirareru
   M2-9 関係する, kankei suru
      Box M2-9Ex Usage notes for と...との関係
   M2-10 -ながら, -nagara
      Box M2-10 Usage notes for the suffix 状 (じょう)

Lesson M3
   M3-1 表す, arawasu
      Box M3-1 Usage notes for 割 (わり)
   M3-2 ような, yō na
      Box M3-2 Usage notes for のか
   M3-3 に対する, ni tai suru
   M3-4 調節する, chōsetsu suru
      Box M3-4 Usage notes for 両 (りょう)
   M3-5 知る, shiru
   M3-6 考える, kangaeru
      Box M3-6 Usage notes for the suffixes と and とき
   M3-7 行う, okonau
      Box M3-7Ex Usage notes for ところ
   M3-8 やすい・にくい, yasui/nikui
   M3-9 示唆される, shisa sareru
   M3-10 対応する, taiō suru
      Box M3-10 Usage notes for ことにする and ことになる

Lesson M4
   M4-1 当たり, atari
   M4-2 かもしれない, kamoshirenai
   M4-3 望む, nozomu
      Box M4-3 Usage notes for 場合 (ばあい)
   M4-4 比較, hikaku
   M4-5 求める, motomeru
   M4-6 提供する, teikyō suru
   M4-7 伴う, tomonau
   M4-8 越える, koeru
      Box M4-8Ex Usage notes for できるだけ
   M4-9 かどうか; kadōka
   M4-10 至る, itaru

Lesson M5 - Summary and Test – find out how much you've learned so far in 2 exercises.
   Exercise M5-1
   Exercise M5-2

Lessons M6 to M9 present more specific vocabulary covering statistics, surgery, imaging, and immunology.

Lesson M6 - 統計, Statistics

   M6-1 統計学的, tōkeigaku teki, statistically...
   M6-2 有意な差, yūi na sa, significant difference
   M6-3 直線回帰分析, chokusenkaiki bunseki, linear regression analysis
   M6-4 信頼区間, shinrai kukan, confidence interval
     Box M6-4Ex Usage note for the noun-forming suffix ...さ
   M6-5 分散分析, bunsan bunseki, analysis of variance
   M6-6 有意性検定, yūisei kentei, test of significance
   M6-7 帰無仮説, kimu kasetsu, null hypothesis
   M6-8 分布, bunpu, distribution
     Box M6-8 Usage notes for the conditional suffix ...ば
   M6-9 検定, kentei, test
   M6-10 標準偏差/標準誤差, hyōjun hensa/hyōjun gosa, standard deviation/standard error
Lesson M7 - 手術, Surgery
   M7-1 循環器外科, junkanki geka, cardiovascular surgery
   M7-2 脳神経外科, nō shinkei geka, neurosurgery
   M7-3 形成外科, keisei geka, plastic surgery
   M7-4 口腔顎顔面外科, kōkūgakuganmen geka, oral and maxillofacial surgery
   M7-5 整形外科, seikei geka, orthopedic surgery
   M7-6 移植手術, ishoku shujutsu, transplant surgery
   M7-7 顕微鏡下手術, kenbikyō-ka shujutsu, microsurgery
   M7-8 レーザー外科, re-za- geka, laser surgery
   M7-9 ロボット手術, robotto shujutsu, robotic surgery
   M7-10 歯科口腔外科, shikakōkū geka, dental surgery
     Box M7-10 Usage notes for 呈する (ていする)

Lesson M8 - イメージングと医学物理学, Imaging and Medical Physics
   M8-1 磁気共鳴映像法, jiki kyōmei eizōhō, magnetic resonance imaging
   M8-2 超音波検査, chōonpa kensa, ultrasonography
   M8-3 断層撮影; dansō satsuei, tomography
   M8-4 核医学, kakuigaku, nuclear medicine
   M8-5 X線撮影, X sen satsuei, radiography 
   M8-6 心電図検査, shindenzu kensa, electrocardiography
   M8-7 サーモグラフィ, sa-mogurafi, thermography
   M8-8 脳波計, nōhakei, electroencephalograph
   M8-9 造影剤, zōeizai, contrast medium
     Box M8-9Ex Usage notes for ほど
   M8-10 シンチグラフィ, shinchigurafi, scintigraphy

Lesson M9 - 免疫学, Immunology
   M9-1 免疫, meneki, immunization
   M9-2 免疫学的検査, menekigakuteki kensa, immunological examination
   M9-3 免疫治療, meneki chiryō, immunotherapy
   M9-4 免疫診断, menekishindan, immunodiagnosis
   M9-5 免疫組織化学, meneki soshiki kagaku, immunohistochemistry
   M9-6 免疫測定法, meneki sokutei hō, immunoassay
   M9-7 免疫薬理学, meneki yakurigaku, immunopharmacology
   M9-8 免疫調節物質, meneki chōsetsu busshitsu, immunomodulator
   M9-9 免疫染色, meneki senshoku, immunostaining
   M9-10 自己免疫, jiko meneki, autoimmunity

Lesson M10 – Summary and Test - find out how much you have learned about general medical vocabulary and constructions.

Lessons M11 to M20 present examples of text from some of the most common types of medical documents.

Lesson M11 - Case Reports and Case Report Forms (症例報告と症例報告書)
   Author - 著者
   Author affiliation - 著者の所属
   Institution names - 施設の名
   Institution addresses - 施設の所在
   Keywords - キーワード
   Abstract - 要約
   Foreword - 緒言
   Introduction - はじめに
   Methods - 方法
   Results - 結果
   Discussion - 考察
   Conclusion - おわりに, 結論, 結語
   Summary - 要旨, 概要
   Acknowledgments - 謝辞
   Conflicts of interest- 利害の対立
   References - 文献

Lesson M12 - Research Articles from Academic Journals (研究論文) and sources of useful information to find vocabulary and and useful phrases like CiNii

Lesson M13 - Investigator Brochures (治験薬概要書) - purpose, structure and headings
Lesson M14 - Package Inserts (添付文書)
   Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC, 製品特性概要)
   Patient Information Leaflet (PIL)
  • Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System - 解剖治療化学分類法
  • KEGG database
  • RAD-AR Council information - くすりの適正使用協議会
  • Japanese Medical Device Nomenclature (JMDN) - 日本医療機器名称体系
Lesson M15 - Interview Forms (医薬品インタビューフォーム) and Drug Information Sheet (くすりのしおり)

Lesson M16 - Pharmacology and Toxicology Reports - 薬理学と中毒学報告

Lesson M17 - Clinical Trial Protocols 臨床試験プロトコル

  • International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) - 医薬品規制調和国際会議
  • MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) - 医薬品規制用語集
  • Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) - 有害事象共通用語規準
  • SNOMED-CT - Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms
  • International Classification of Disease (ICD) - 国際統計分類
  • SF-36
  • Declaration of Helsinki - ヘルシンキ宣言
Lesson M18 - Manuals for Medical Equipment - 医療機器の操作命令
  • Cell Counters, Autoanalyzers, MRI scanners, CT scanners, Particle beam therapy, X-ray radiotherapy, Cannulae and Catheters
  • Translating Japanese Industrial Standard (日本工業規格) specifications.
Lesson M19 - Annual Reports - アニュアルレポート - Sources of information for annual reports and a short glossary of financial and auditing terms

Lesson M20 - Good Practices
   GMP - Good Manufacturing Practice, 医薬品の製造管理及び品質管理に関する基準
   GLP - Good Laboratory Practice, 医薬品の安全性に関する非臨床試験の実施の基準
   GCP - Good Clinical Practice, 医薬品の臨床試験の実施の基
   GQP - Good Quality Practice, 医薬品などの品質管理の基
   GVP - Good Vigilance Practice, 医薬品などの製造販売後の安全管理基準
   GPP - Good Pharmacy Practice, 薬局業務規範
   GDP - Good Dispensing Practice, 医薬品の調剤と品質管理に関する基準
   GPP - Good Pharmacovigilance Practice, 医薬品の安全性監視に関する基準
   GDP - Good Distribution Practice, 医薬品の物流に関する基準
   GTDP - Good Trade and Distribution Practices for Pharmaceutical Starting Materials, 医薬品出発物質のための適正貿易・流通規範
   GPMSP - Good Post-Marketing Surveillance Practice, 医薬品の市販後調査の基準
   GPSP - Good Post-Marketing Study Practice, 医薬品の製造販売後の調査及び試験の実施の基準
   GPP - Good Pharmacy Practice, 薬局業務規範, 薬局業務指針
   GRP - Good Review Practice, 審査実施基準
   GIP - Good Importing Practice, 輸入医薬品の品質管理基準
   GRP - Good Regulatory Practice, 良き規制慣行
   GDP - Good Distribution Practice, 医薬品の物流に関する基準
   GSP - Good Supply Practice, 医薬品の供給と品質管理に関する実施規定
   GUP - Good Use Practice, 医療機関における医薬品の品質管理

Appendices M1-M8 deal with medical translation-related topics and documents, glossaries and reference material. All Appendices are Japanese-language specific except Appendix 7 which describes software tools which can be used in (almost) any language combination.

Appendix M1 - Regulatory Affairs - 薬事行政
   PFSB-ELD Notifications - 薬食審査発
   Report on the Deliberation Results (Review Reports) - 審議結果報告書

Appendix M2 - Medical Database Mining - 医学データマイニング - digging deeper
   CiNii - (for Japanese journal searching)
   IPDL - Intellectual Property Digital Library (for Japanese patent information searching)
   J-Stage & JARIO - (for Japanese journal searching)
   KEGG - the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and other useful stuff
   PubMed - (for English language journal searching)

Appendix M3 – Miscellaneous - その他
   Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) - 患者報告アウトカム
   Quality of Life (QOL) - クオリティ・オブ・ライフ
   Kanpōyaku (漢方薬) - traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chinese herbal medicine
   Complementary medicine and alternative therapies
Appendix M4 - Glossaries - 用語集

   Appendix M4-1 - Glossary of Cardiology
   Appendix M4-2 - Glossary of Chemical Salts
   Appendix M4-3 - Glossary of Medical Physics
   Appendix M4-4 - Glossary of Pharmaceutical Excipients
   Appendix M4-5 - Glossary of Chemistry and Functional Groups
   Appendix M4-6 - Glossary of Disease Names
   Appendix M4-7 - Glossary of Surgical Terms
   Appendix M4-8 - Glossary of Imaging Terms
   Appendix M4-9 - Glossary of Immunology Terms
   Appendix M4-10 - Glossary of Statistical Terms
   Appendix M4-11 - Glossary of Drug Names and Classes
   Appendix M4-12 - Glossary of Medical Journal Titles
   Appendix M4-13 - Glossary of Japanese Medical Institutions
   Appendix M4-14 - Glossary of Histological Stains
   Appendix M4-15 - Glossary of Pathotoxicology Terms
   Appendix M4-16 - Glossary of Vaccines and Fevers
   Appendix M4-17 - Glossary of Parasitology Terms
   Appendix M4-18 - Glossary of Radiology Terms
   Appendix M4-19 - Glossary of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Terms
   Appendix M4-20 - Glossary of Biochemistry Terms
   Appendix M4-21 - Glossary of Clinical and Physiological Test Terms
   Appendix M4-22 - Glossary of Dental Terms
   Appendix M4-23 - Glossary of Microbiology and Infection Terms
   Appendix M4-24 - Glossary of Psychology and Psychiatry Terms
   Appendix M4-25 - Glossary of Miscellaneous Pharmaceutical Development Terms

Appendix M5 – References - 参考
   • Books
   • Websites
   • Case Reports
   • Educational Resources
   • Translation Community, Blog, and Where to Look for Work
   • Japanese/Western Calendar Conversion
   • Counter Suffixes
   • Units
   • Japanese Text Marks and Symbols
   • Proofreaders' Checklist

Appendix M6 - Notes for Japanese Medical Translators

Appendix M7 - Software tools for translators and getting the most from Google searches.
   • Preparing documents for translation
   • Opening secure PFDs
   • Optical character recognition (OCR) software
   • Translation memory software
   → Text Alignment Software
   → Concordance Software
   → 20-minute step-by-step guide to Omega T
   → 20-minute step-by-step guide to Nitro PDF
   • Text Manipulation Software
   • Dictation software
   • Machine translation software, computer-assisted translation
   • Work flow control
   • File search software
   • Using Google (or any search engine) effectively
   • Your own Website
   • Miscellaneous
   • Main differences between US and UK spelling

   If you work methodically through each of the 20 lessons, you should be able to complete the exercises. If you have problems, go back and repeat each lesson or the lesson relevant to the point you are stuck on. The entire course was designed so that you can work at your own pace and refer back to the lessons at any time. If you want to ask a question, post it on the Forum.

Example Lesson

Each lesson shows a real example of a medical text. Here is Lesson M1-3, which explains the use of 含む (ふくむ, fukumu), is shown in the following example (new vocabulary with reading in hiragana is shown in blue).

blue line
Lesson M1-3
  含む: ふくむ: fukumu
containing, comprising, consisting (of), including

含む is usually preceded by を to indicate the object

Typically: Aを含むB - B containing A, B including A

the negative is indicated by 含まない (ふくまない) or 含まず (ふくまず) (not containing, not including, devoid of, without)
  Here's an example.
  出血 (しゅっけつ) = bleeding, hemorrhage (出血する, to bleed, to lose blood, to hemorrhage)
や = and (used in a simple list, for example, AやB, A and B; it has the meaning of 'and amongst other things'. It can sometimes mean 'or' as well. It is used once only between items and is often used with など to also indicate 'amongst other things'. See Box M1-3 below for the use of と, や, 及び, 並びに, 又は, あるいは, もしくは and それとも)
脳梗塞 (のうこうそく) = cerebral infarction
血栓塞栓症 (けっせんそくせんしょう) = thromboembolism, thromboembolic disease
といった = such as (from the verb 言う (いう) meaning to speak, to talk, to utter, to say; と言う is commonly translated as 'such as' or 'like')
合併症 (がっぺいしょう) = complication (specifically referring to a medical complication) (合併 means combination, union, amalgamation, or consolidation and 合併する means to combine, to amalgamate; you may also see 併用剤, 併用薬, or 合併剤, concomitant drug; 併用 (へいよう) means parallel/combined/simultaneous use, and 併用する means to jointly use, to use together (with), to use in combination, to use concomitantly)
  Complications such as thromboembolic diseases including hemorrhage and cerebral infarction
Box M1-3 - Usage notes for と, や, 及び, 並びに, 又は, あるいは, もしくは and それとも

These words are commonly used conjunctions and their use is explained here. These are general rules on their use and some overlap of usage does occur.

- to means 'and'. It is used to list noun phrases exhaustively. For example;
潰瘍 (かいよう, kaiyō) = ulcer
腫瘍 (しゅよう, shuyō) = tumor

潰瘍腫瘍は診断できる - ulcers and tumors can be diagnosed
(There is no と after the last item in the list.)

- ya means 'and'. It is used to list two or more nouns or noun phrases in an inexhaustive manner. For example;
ABCは高いです, A and B and C are expensive
(The implication here is that things like A and B and C are expensive but other things are too.)

及び - oyobi means 'and'. It is used to connect two or more nouns or noun phrases. It is typically used to link two things and is generally used once in a sentence. For example;
亜鉛 (あえん, aen) = zinc
銅 (どう, dō) = copper
欠乏症 (けつぼうしょう, ketsubōshō) = deficiency
TPN法施行中の亜鉛および銅の欠乏症が報告されている, zinc and iron deficiencies have been reported during TPN treatment

並びに - narabini means 'and'. It is used to link two nouns or noun phrases and tends to be used at the end of a list to imply 'as well as' or 'both'. Generally, 並びに is used once in a sentence in front of the last noun or noun phrase. For example;
A及びB並びにC, A and B as well as C
並びに can be used to join already joined nouns. For example;
A及びB並びにC及びD, A and B as well as C and D

又は - matawa means 'or' or 'either...or' but should not be confused with また which has several meanings and is used as a conjunction that expresses repetition or addition.
又は is a conjunction used to connect two choices or possibilities and may optionally be preceded by か. For example;
小麦経口負荷試験 (こむぎけいこうふかしけん, komugi keikō fuka shiken) = oral wheat challenge test
病歴 (びょうれき, byōreki) = medical record, medical history, clinical history
に基づいた (ni motodzuita) past tense of に基づく = based on
小麦アレルギー (こむぎアレルギー, komugi arerugi-) = wheat allergy

diagnosis of wheat allergy based on an oral wheat challenge test or clinical history

あるいは - (或いは) aruiwa means 'or'. It is used as a conjunction to show alternatives. It also means 'either...or'. For example;
OTC薬 (OTCやく, OTC yaku) = over the counter drugs
健康食品 (けんこうしょくひん, kennkō shokuhin) = health food
発症 (はっしょう, hasshō) = onset

OTC薬あるいは健康食品でも発症が報告されており, onset has been reported even with OTC drugs or health foods
If あるいは is at the start of a sentence, it means 'Otherwise', 'Alternatively' or 'More specifically'.

もしくは - moshikuwa (also written 若しくは) means 'or'. It is used in formal written Japanese to connect two or more (sometimes seemingly unlinked) alternatives. For example;
糞便 (ふんべん, funben) = feces
乳酸 (にゅうさん, nyūsan) = lactic acid
コハク酸 (コハクさん, kohaku san) = succinic acid
異常な (いじょうな, ijō na) = abnormal
蓄積 (ちくせき, chikuseki) = accumulation

糞便中に乳酸もしくはコハク酸の異常な蓄積が見られた, an abnormal accumulation of lactic or succinic acid was observed in feces

それとも - soretomo also means 'or' but is used in spoken rather than written Japanese.

In terms of formality, the order is もしくは > 又は > あるいは.
  Here's another example.
  クリングル構造 (クリングルこうぞう) = Kringle structure [part of a protein chain which folds into a large loop linked by 3 disulfide bonds. The word Kringle derives from a Scandinavian pastry which resemble the shape of this protein structure.]
さまざまな = various, varied, diverse, all kinds of, all sorts of, all manner of
中 (うち) = among, amongst, between (中から, from among...)
  From among various proteins containing a Kringle structure
  And here's another example.
  グルココルチコイド受容体 (じゅようたい) = glucocorticoid receptor
輸送 (ゆそう) = transportation, trafficking (タンパク質輸送, protein trafficking; 輸送する, to transport, to convey, to carry, to traffic)
阻害 (そがい) = inhibition (阻害する, to inhibit; 阻害剤 (そがいざい), inhibitor)
明らかにされた (あきらかにされた) = has become clear, has been clarified (from 明らかにする, to make clear, to clarify)
  Inhibition of protein trafficking including glucocorticoid receptors has become clear

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Note: if you are using Firefox as your browser, you can use the Internote add-on to write your own notes on each page of this site as you work through the lessons. Other browsers have similar add-ons. See Appendix M7 for more useful software tools.

Computer specifications

Any reasonably powered PC running Windows 7/8/10 or a Mac running OSX. All pages were primarily tested on Safari, Internet Explorer and Ice Dragon for the PC. This website also works well with Opera, Firefox, and Google Chrome. The pages also display well on an iPad or similar tablet. A fast internet connection would also be useful as some example PDFs/glossary files are quite large. A PDF reader such as Adobe Reader XI or Nitro PDF Reader is required and both can be freely downloaded.

Cost of this course and how to subscribe

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Lesson M0   right arrow